And when my mind is wandering,(from ‘Fixing a Hole’ by John Lennon and Paul McCartney)
there I will go. And it really doesn’t matter if I’m wrong, I’m right where I belong.
I like my meditation practice to be simple and yet usually, I also like to have some kind of structure. The hope being that this structure might just help to reduce the wanderings of my restless mind into those places that lie just beyond my field of conscious observation. Developed by the influential Burmese Buddhist monk Mahasi Sayadaw (1904 – 1982), this particular method of Insight meditation provides the structure needed to aid concentration and awareness with each passing moment.
My intention here is only to provide a brief overview, based on my own experience and interpretation, of the practical elements of this technique and as such I will not be discussing it within the original Theravada Buddhist context. If what follows is of interest to you then I must recommend that you seek further, and more expert, advice – ideally in person (such as on a retreat) or via a website or book. It is highly likely that this advice will come in the form of Buddhist teaching, however there is no need to be Buddhist or subscribe to Buddhist doctrine to partake and enjoy the benefits. A couple of recommendations that I offer are this article, which is a translated transcript of an instructional talk by Mahasi Sayadaw and the retreat centre where I was taught to ‘note’, Satipanya – on the Shropshire/ Welsh border, run by Bante Bodhidhamma (who also leads regular retreats at Gaia House in Devon).
Okay, so with the passing of that all too brief introduction – owing as it does to the referencing of more detailed sources – I will get right on to my semi-instructional account of Mahasi Vippassana, or as I prefer to call it – Noting Meditation.
Noting – well what is it anyway?
The most popular form of meditation in the UK at the moment seems to be that of concentrating on the breath, which I believe (in the Buddhist tradition) is a form of Samatha. The idea seems to be that this develops ones powers of concentration between each passing moment, with additional benefits arising out of this. While Noting Meditation does incorporate a significant amount of breath focus, it also allows the mind to roam by switching the meditator’s attention to the object of the minds wandering.
Most other forms of meditation teach that it is best to avoid language, or any intentional mental formations, and to instead just experience each moment as it is. There are good reasons for this but it can be difficult to maintain – I for one need an anchor. Noting breaks from this convention by allowing the use of words to identify (note) and maintain concentration on experience, although one must be careful to select words that are least likely to lead off into unhelpful mental ruminations.
When meditating I tend to sit cross legged in the formal, and perhaps poncy looking Burmese style – but I do not feel that this is an imperative, as I will discuss in the part 2, noting can be employed in pretty much any situation. Although the predominant school of thought teaches that sitting cross legged enables the greatest level of concentration and alertness, there have already been several discussions here arguing the merits, or lack thereof, of such a view. I would personally say that if you already sit cross legged for meditation then continue to do so, but if you prefer to sit in a chair, stand or even lie down then these techniques will still be easy to follow. The important thing is that you can be safe, comfortable and able to maintain a good level of focus – it’s not easy to do this when you are asleep.
How do I note?
Once you are in your preferred posture it is a good idea to try and settle the mind – again if you already have a routine for this, such as a body scan, then stick with that. If not then you can begin noting right away. Perhaps begin with a couple of deep breaths and then start noting the word ‘sitting’ or ‘standing’ or whatever word best describes your chosen position.
By ‘noting’ what I mean is to repeat your chosen word over and over again – this should be internal, there is no need to audibly vocalize. The word, however, is only a tool by which to frame your experience, so at this point just feel what it is like to sit or stand. As you are repeating the word (sitting, sitting, sitting… standing, standing, standing) also experience the physical sensation of sitting (or standing) as a whole activity – at this point we are only settling and focusing the mind.
After a few minutes transfer your focus to the breath, where it will remain for a while before allowing your mind a little more freedom. As you breathe hold your attention at the abdomen, feeling how it rises with the in-breath and falls with the out-breath. As the abdomen rises note ‘rising… rising… rising’, and as the abdomen falls note ‘falling… falling… falling’. As with many other forms of meditation the idea here is not to take control but to experience each breath as it comes. I would recommend trying to maintain this intentional, Samatha style concentration for around 5 – 10 minutes, the purpose being to nurture a basic level of focus and provide a platform from which the attention can start from and return to as necessary. So, for this first period just gently bring your attention back to the abdomen each time that it wanders.
After 5 -10 minutes you should be ready to gently release some of the slack from those mental reigns. Continue to focus on the breath, but now if the mind is stimulated by a distraction change your noting word appropriately. The word that I would choose depends on the nature of the distraction and I will discuss some possibilities below.
Before I continue, it is worth saying a little about how often one should keep the focus on any given experience. Some sources say that one should keep the focus where it is, until the distraction has passed. For example if it is a sound – a dog barking for instance – then one might repeat the word; ‘sound… sound… sound…’ until either the noise has ceased or it has no longer become the main focus of attention. If the noise has ceased and there is nothing else to grab your attention then return to the breath. If there is something that muscles in on your focus then make this the object of the noting.
Other sources that I have come across suggest a slightly different approach, where by one notes the distraction in between breaths. With the example of the barking dog that might go a little like this; ‘rising… rising… rising… falling… falling… falling… sound… rising… rising… rising… falling… falling…’ and so on.
I tend to use a combination of both depending on how pervasive the distraction is and how high my levels of concentration are at the time. If they are high I might stay with the sound but if they are low and I am regularly wandering without any particular point of focus then I will incorporate the breath as a helpful foothold.
Which Words Should I Use?
As mentioned above it is important that any words used are as neutral and free from judgement as possible, they should be single words and not preceded or followed by any intentional embellishment. If your face is itching then the word should just be ‘itching’, not ‘face itching’ and certainly not ‘my face is itching’. You should not be attempting to imagine a face itching or an abdomen rising or a dog barking – although that will happen – rather one is only trying to experience these things as they occur. The purpose of noting words are not to describe or add to what is happening but rather to assist us in our mindful observations.
The amount of possible distractions is practically infinite and it is not possible to suggest words for each and every eventuality. Instead I will briefly discuss what I think are the three main categories of distraction Physical, Cognitive and Emotional.
For me it is the physical events that are easiest to identify and it is here that I spend most of my time. I also think that it is the physical occurrences that are easiest to note. Here are the most common (or perhaps obvious) sensations with examples of words that I use in my practice:
- Itching. I use the word ‘itching’, as discussed above.
- Pins and needles. Usually it’s ‘tingling’ although this might alter with varying intensities.
- Pain. I tend not to refer to it as ‘pain’, which I think has negative connotations. Instead I will note the type of pain – so it might be ‘sharp’, ‘tight’ or some such identification.
- Temperature. Again this depends on what the temperature is, so it could be ‘cool’, ‘warm’, ‘hot’ or ‘cold’.
There are many other, more subtle physical sensations that will arise, such as the sensation of the hands touching each other or the feet touching the floor. The key word here is touching – as the attention if focused on the hands resting against each other the noting word ‘touching’ can be used.
Cognitive distractions are very common in my practice and are the ones that lead inevitably away from the mindfulness that I am trying to nurture. My method of noting thoughts is very simple but it can be more complicated if you wish. For a more detailed account of how to note various cognitive thoughts you can probably not go too far wrong than referring here, to Mahasi Sayadaw himself.
Rather than analyse the type of thought too deeply I only note the very basic characteristics. This might just be a word such as ‘thinking’, ‘planning’, or ‘remembering’. I think that it’s here where it may be easiest to fall into the trap of feeding – rather than being mindful of – an over-active imagination, which is why I like to keep the words very simple and nondescript. If done effectively the very act of noting will stop the train of thought in its tracks and one can return their focus to the breath, or whatever object happens to tickle our restless fancy.
I find emotion very difficult to identify while I am meditating, unless it happens to be quite strong. More often than not, however, my emotions are very subtle and do not grab my attention. When they do it is usually a response to some kind of cognitive activity like anticipating an exam or remembering doing something well, the former might make me anxious and the latter happy – both of which would also be my noting words.
There are of course, a huge array of emotions, some highly intrusive and many understated. I imagine that with experience one can become able to note many emotions with ease but until this happens automatically I do not think that it is a good idea to spend time searching – only note what comes to the surface, of it’s own accord.
I like this technique a lot – it is the one that I use most often. I like the relative freedom that it affords but I also like the structure it enables – with this method, what might be considered distractions can be transformed into phenomena on which we can meditate. However there is a slight paradox here: in order to develop mindfulness, which supposedly exists before our brains create their mental formations, we are using a kind of mental formation. It is helpful then, to consider this technique as a stepping stone from which the active process of ‘noting’ can gradually be dropped. I would also suggest that this technique is used in conjunction with other styles (not necessarily at the same time), although this is only my personal view.
Noting is not only for use in formal meditation and Part 2 will discuss how this technique can be useful and rewarding in almost any situation – from opening a door to cleaning a toilet.